The Mouth-Body Connection
Research has recently proven what dentists have long suspected: there is a strong connection between periodontal disease and other chronic conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and osteoporosis.
Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation of the gum tissue, presence of disease causing bacteria, and infection below the gum line. Infection and bacteria in the mouth spreads throughout the body and can lead to a host of problematic health issues. For this reason, maintaining excellent oral hygiene and reducing the progression of periodontal disease, through treatment, will have benefits beyond preventing gum disease and bone loss. It can also keep you from developing other serious conditions.
There is a very informative book, Beat the Heart Attack Gene written by Bradley Bale, MD and Amy Doneen, ARNP, that you might want to read.
- Periodontal Disease, Heart Disease and Stroke
- Periodontal Disease and Diabetes
- Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy
- Periodontal Disease and Respiratory Disease
- Periodontal Disease and Osteoporosis
Coronary heart disease occurs when fatty proteins, and a substance called plaque, build up on the walls of your arteries. This causes the arteries to narrow, constricting blood flow. Oxygen is restricted from traveling to the heart which results in shortness of breath, chest pain and even heart attack.
The link between periodontal disease and heart disease is so apparent that patients with oral conditions are nearly twice as likely to suffer from coronary artery disease than those with healthy mouths. Periodontal disease has also been proven to exacerbate existing heart conditions. Additionally, patients with periodontal disease have been known to be more susceptible to strokes. A stroke occurs when the blood flow to the brain is suddenly stopped. This may occur, for example, when a blood clot prevents blood from reaching the brain.
One of the causes of the connection between periodontal disease and heart disease is oral bacteria entering the bloodstream. There are many strands of periodontal bacteria. Some strands enter the bloodstream and attach to the fatty plaques in the coronary arteries. This attachment leads to clot formation and increased risk of a variety of issues including heart attack.
Inflammation caused by periodontal disease creates an increase in white blood cells and C-reactive proteins (CRP). CRP is a protein that has been associated with heart disease for many, many years. When levels are increased in the body, CRP amplifies the body’s natural inflammatory response. Bacteria from periodontal disease enters the bloodstream, causing the liver to produce extra CRP, which then leads to inflamed arteries and possibly blood clots. Inflamed arteries can lead to blockage, which can cause heart attacks or strokes.
In a recent study, 101 people actually suffering a heart attack had blood clots removed as well as arterial blood samples and the clots were DNA tested for oral pathogens. It was discovered that the conncentration of oral germs was 16 times greater in the clot than in the arterial blood, indicating the pathogens came from the underlying plaque deposit, that had ruptured through the artery wall. The DNA analysis also showed that 75 percent of the clots had oral pathogens that cause dental cavities and 35 percent of the clots contained bacteria that causes periodontal disease.
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, for both men and women. Practicing proper oral hygiene and obtaining treatment for periodontal problems can help prevent the risk of developing this unfortunate condition.
Diabetes is a serious, incurable disease that is characterized by too much glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Type II diabetes occurs when the body is unable to regulate insulin levels, meaning too much glucose stays in the blood. Type I diabetics cannot produce any insulin at all. Diabetes affects between 12 and 14 million Americans and can lead to a variety of health issues such as heart disease and stroke.
Research has shown, people with diabetes are more likely to develop periodontal disease than non-diabetics. Diabetics with poor blood sugar control also develop periodontal disease, more frequently and severely than those who have good management over their diabetes.
There appears to be a two way link: Periodontal disease worsens insulin resistance and having insulin resistance raises the threat of developing gum disease.
The connection, between diabetes and periodontal disease, results from a variety of factors. Diabetics are more susceptible to all types of infections, including periodontal infections, due to the fact diabetes slows circulation thus allowing bacteria to colonize. Diabetes also reduces the body’s overall resistance to infection, thus increasing the probability of the gums becoming infected.
Moderate to severe cases of periodontal disease elevate sugar levels in the body, increasing the amount of time the body is required to function with high blood sugar. Diabetics with periodontitis are most likely to suffer from increased blood sugar levels making it difficult to control their diabetes. Further, high glucose levels in saliva promote growth of gum disease causing bacteria.
Blood vessel thickening is another concern for diabetics. Blood vessels function by providing nutrients and removing waste products from the body. When they become thickened, by diabetes, these exchanges are unable to occur. As a result, harmful waste is left in the mouth and can weaken the resistance of gum tissue leading to infection and disease.
Smoking and tobacco use is detrimental to everyone’s oral and overall health, but it is particularly harmful to diabetics. Diabetic smokers, 45 and older, are 20 times more likely to develop periodontal disease than non-smokers.
It is very important for everyone to properly brush their teeth twice a day, floss daily and visit the dentist regularly, however, it is especially essential that diabetics practice these preventive measures. When teeth are not brushed, harmful bacteria ingest the excess sugar and colonize beneath the gumline.
Pregnant women with periodontal disease expose their unborn children to a variety of risks and possible complications. Pregnancy causes many hormonal changes in women, which increase the likelihood of developing periodontal disease such as gingivitis, or gum inflammation. These oral problems have been linked to preeclampsia, or low birth weight of the baby, as well as premature birth. Fortunately, halting the progression of periodontal disease through practicing high standards of oral hygiene, and treating existing problems, can help reduce the risk of periodontal disease related complications by up to 50%.
There are several factors that contribute to why periodontal disease affects the mother and her unborn child. One is an increase in prostaglandin in mothers with advanced stages of periodontal disease, particularly periodontitis. Prostaglandin is a labor inducing compound found in the oral bacteria associated with periodontitis. Because periodontitis increases the levels of prostaglandin, the mother may go into labor prematurely thereby delivering a baby with low birth weight.
Another compound that has recently been linked to premature birth and low birth weights is C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a protein that has long been associated with heart disease. Periodontal disease increases CRP levels in the body, which then amplify the body’s natural inflammatory response. Bacteria from periodontal disease enters the bloodstream, causing the liver to produce extra CRP, which leads to inflamed arteries and possibly blood clots. Inflamed arteries can lead to blockage, which can cause heart attack or stroke. Although it is not completely understood why elevated CRP also causes preeclampsia, studies have overwhelmingly proven that an extremely high rate of CRP in early pregnancy definitely increases the risk.
Finally, the bacteria that invade and live in the gum sockets, of a diseased mouth, travel through the bloodstream and affect other parts of the body. For pregnant women, research has shown that these bacteria may colonize in the internal mammary glands and coronary arteries.
If you are pregnant, it is important to practice effective home care for preventing gum disease. can help assess your level of oral health and develop preventive measures and treatment plans to best protect you and your baby.
Respiratory disease occurs when fine droplets are inhaled from the mouth and throat into the lungs. These droplets contain germs that can spread and multiply within the lungs to impair breathing. Recent research had also proven that bacteria found in the mouth and throat can be drawn into the lower respiratory tract and cause infection or worsen existing lung conditions.
Bacteria that grow in the oral cavity and travel into the lungs can cause respiratory problems such as pneumonia. This occurs mostly in patients with periodontal disease. Periodontal disease has also been proven to have a role in contracting bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a respiratory condition characterized by blockage of the airways, caused mostly by smoking, has also been proven to worsen if the patient has periodontal disease.
One of the reasons for the connection between respiratory problems and periodontal disease is low immunity. Patients who experience respiratory problems generally have low immunity, meaning bacteria can easily grow above and below the gum lines, without being halted by the body’s immune system. Once periodontal disease is contracted it will only progress and worsen respiratory issues.
Inflammation of the oral tissue has also been linked to respiratory problems. Oral bacteria causing the irritation travels to the lungs and contributes to the inflammation of the lining. This creates respiratory problems because it limits the amount of air that can be passed freely through the lungs.
If you are diagnosed with respiratory disease or periodontal disease, it is possible for us to work with your physician to plan how to best treat both conditions and eliminate further complications.
Osteoporosis is a condition common in older patients, particularly women, that is characterized by the thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time. Osteoporosis occurs when the body fails to form enough new bone, or when the body absorbs too much old bone. The leading cause of osteoporosis is a drop in estrogen, in menopausal women, or a drop in testosterone, among men. Sufferers of osteoporosis must take extra care, in daily activities, as they are at increased risk for bone fractures.
Because periodontal disease also leads to bone loss, the two diseases have been studied for possible connections. Research found that women with periodontal bacteria, in their mouths, were more likely to have bone loss in the oral cavity and jaw, which can lead to tooth loss. Studies conducted, over a period of 10 years, also discovered that osteoporosis patients could significantly reduce tooth loss by controlling periodontal disease. Further, it was found that post-menopausal women who suffer from osteoporosis are 86% more likely to develop periodontal disease.
One of the reasons for the connection between osteoporosis and periodontal disease is an estrogen deficiency. Estrogen deficiency speeds up the progression of oral bone loss and other bone loss. It also accelerates the rate of loss of fibers and tissues which keep the teeth stable. Tooth loss occurs when the fibers are destroyed.
Low mineral bone density is one of several causes of osteoporosis. The inflammation from periodontal disease weakens bones more prone to break down. This is why periodontitis can be particularly detrimental and progressive to patients with osteoporosis.
If you are diagnosed with osteoporosis, it is extremely important to take preventative measures against periodontal disease, to protect your teeth and oral bones.